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THE ANNALS 


AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[FOURTH SERIES.] 

No. 23. NOVEMBER 1869. 


XXXVI. — On the Ooleoptera of St, Helena, 

By T. Vernon Wollaston, M.A., F.L.S. 

It is now eight years since I gave an enumeration, in the 
^ Journal of Entomology,’ of fourteen species of Ooleoptera 
which had been detected at St. Helena, on the 21st of July 
1860, by the late Mr. Bewicke, during a few hours’ collecting 
in that island {en passant from the Cape of Good Hope to 
Madeira). Since then, our knowledge of the fauna has been 
considerably increased, mainly through the exertions of J. C. 
Melliss, Esq., a gentleman who is resident on the spot, and 
who continues to take a lively interest in the various branches 
of natural science ; and although, clearly, very much remains 
yet to be done, two successive consignments which he has 
entrusted to me of the beetles which from time to time have 
rewarded his researches enable me now to venture on some- 
thing like a systematic, though short, catalogue (destined, I 
hope, hereafter, to be greatly increased) of the St. -Helena 
Ooleoptera. 

That a special interest should attach to the productions of 
any island which is unusually remote, I need scarcely state ; 
and when we recollect that St. Helena is about 1200 miles 
from the nearest point of the African continent, we shall at 
once acknowledge that, for the geographical naturalist, a more 
isolated field could hardly perhaps be found. The manifest 
deterioration of the island, in a scientific point of view, during 
the last 300 years, is a subject on which I need not dilate ; 
for the primeval forests which are said to have more or less 
clothed it at its discovery have succumbed beneath the ruth- 
less hand of civilization,” — a few detached patches alone re- 
maining, on the extreme summit and more inaccessible slopes, 
to harbour what is left of that noble fauna the fragments of 
which are so eccentric that one cannot but suspect the quondam 

Ann, & May, N, Hist, Ser. 4. Voliv, 22 


298 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St, Helena, 

occurrence of many intermediate links (now, in all probability, 
long exterminated) which must, as it were, have articulated 
them on” to the recognized types with which we are familiar. 
Of course in an island of this kind, which has become intensely 
cultivated since the period of its colonization, we naturally 
should not expect to meet with many traces of its primeval 
species ; for the gradual rooting-out of the native vegetation, 
and the introduction, year after year, of more useful ” plants 
(chiefly from European latitudes, but in the present instance, 
])erhaps, partly from the Cape of Good Hope), accompanied by 
their inevitable train of insect parasites, would so far alter the 
entire country as to destroy the apparent peculiarity of its 
productions, and give a mixed character to its fauna and flora 
to which aboriginally it had no kind of claim. Happily, how- 
ever, in cases like this, when the species are brought fairly 
together, it is usually not difficult for a practised eye to sepa- 
rate in a general way the species which are strictly endemic from 
those which have subsequently been introduced and become 
naturalized ; and thus it is that out of the seventy-four which 
are enumerated in the following catalogue, there are only thir- 
teen concerning which I have (in that particular respect) much 
doubt. Indeed what we may term the ultm-mdigenoixs ” 
species speak at once, and umnistakeably, for themselves ; 
and in like manner as regards those which are more or less 
cosmopolitan, or which have found their way, through human 
agencies, into nearly every country which has the slightest 
intercommunication with the civilized world, there can be no 
question. These manifest invportations last mentioned, which, 
however, figure so largely in the St.-Helena list, have no 
real bearing on the true fauna of any single region beyond 
those whence they were originally disseminated, and for the 
most part owe their presence in local catalogues merely to the 
amount of research which may happen to have been made in 
the houses, stores, gardens, and merchandise around the va- 
rious ports and towns. Yet, on the other hand, they cannot 
be omitted or ignored ; for some of them may have taken so 
firm a hold on the newly acquired area as to occupy a promi- 
nent place amongst its primeval organisms, and even perhaps 
to have aided indirectly in their very extermination. This 
latter contingency, however, seems to me to represent the ex- 
ception rather than the rule ; for I have myself generally ob- 
served that the species which are manifestly imported linger 
almost exclusively about the inhabited regions,” and seldom 
attach themselves to those which are emphatically wild and 
uncultivated — and even if in a few instances they should do so, 
that their modus vivendi is totally different from that of the 


Mr, T. V. Wollaston on the Goleo]^tera of Sl Helena, 299 


veritable autochthones of the soil. To these unquestionably 
established forms I have, in the subjoined list, placed (as an 
aid to the eye) an asterisk (*). 

Bearing in mind, therefore, the above considerations, I may 
add that out of the seventy-four species enumerated in the 
present paper, only thirty-five (or less than half) appear to be 
immistahably indigenous, whilst the evidently iinqwrted ones 
(species which through human agencies have become widely 
disseminated over more or less of the civilized world) amount 
to about twenty-six, leaving a residuum of thirteen which I 
should perhaps characterize as doubtful,” but the majority 
of which nevertheless have in all qyrohability been naturalized. 
The thirty-five which seem to be as it were the actual auto- 
chthones of the soil, or which there is no reason to suspect have 
been derived from any other country, are the following : — 


Ilaplothorax Burcliellii. 
Calosoma lialigeua. I an vere 

Helense. ( distinctce ? 

Bembidium Mellissii. 

Adoretus versutus. 
Pentartbrum subcaecum. 
Nesiotes squamosus. 

asperatus. 

Tracliypliloeosoma setosum, 
Sciobius subnodosus. 
Heteronychus arator. 

Mellissius eudoxus. 

adumbratus. 

Heteroderes puncticollia. 
Microxylobius Westwoodii. 

vestitus. 

lacertosus. 

lucifugus. 


Microxylobius terebrans. 

obliteratus. 

debilis. 

Chevrolatii, 

couicollis. 

mouilicornis. 

Notioxenus Bewickii. 

rufopictus. 

dimidiatus. 

alutaceus. 

Ilomoeodera rotundipennis. 

alutaceicollis. 

pygmnea. 

Longitarsus Helenae. 
Cydonia lunata. 

Opatrum hadroides. 
Mordella Mellissiana. 


whilst the twenty-six which clearly have followed in the track 
of civilization and commerce are these : — 


Laemopbloeus pusillus. 
Cryptophagus affinis. 
Mycetaea birta. 

Typbaea fumata. 
Dermestes ca-daverinus. 

vulpinus. 

Attagenus gloriosae. 
Apbodius lividus. 
Corynetes rufipes. 
Gibbium scotias. 
Anobium yelatum. 

paniceum. 

striatum. 


Anobium confertum. 
Rbizopertba bifoveolata. 

pusilla. 

Hylurgus ligniperda. 
Sitopbilus oryzae. 
Otiorbyncbus sulcatus. 
Araeocerus fasciculatus. 
Alpbitobius diaperiuus. 
iceus. 

ocerus cornu tus. 
Tribolium ferrugineum. 
Tenebrio obscuriis. 
Creopbilus maxillosus. 



^ This leaves the following thirteen, already alluded to as 

22 * 


300 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St. Helena. 


doubtful,” the majority of which, however, have most likely 
been, through various causes, naturalized : — 


Pristonychus complanatus. 
Dactylosternum abdominale. 
Sphaeridium dytiscoides. 
Cryptamorplia musEe. 
Tribalus 4-striatus. 

Saprinus lautiis. 

Tomicus aemulus. 


Steuoscelis hylastoides. 
Bruchus rufobrunneus, 

advena. 

Aspidomorpha miliaria, 
Epilachna chrysomelina. 
Zophobas concolor. 


If it be permissible, from material so limited as that which 
has hitherto been amassed, to build up a rough estimate of the 
true Coleopterous population of St. Ilelena, it is clear that the 
twenty-six cosmopolitan ” species, which have manifestly 
followed in the wake of mere commerce and civilization, must 
be altogether set aside ; and in that case, giving the thirteen 
more or less equivocal ones the advantage of the doubt, we 
should have forty-eight to represent the aboriginal (and evi- 
dently much reduced) fauna of this remote deteriorated island. 
When commenting, in 18G1, on even the foiuteen species 
which had been collected by Mr. Bewicke, I called attention 
to the extraordinary fact that not only did the weevils number 
nearly two-thirds of the entire batch, but were likewise 
all of them endemic^ hoth as regards species and genus ! 
whilst certainly three, if not indeed more, out of the remaining 
six (belonging to other families) possess a wide geographical 
range. This led me to remark that the Curculiontdce would, 
in all probability, be found to play a most important part in 
the Coleopterous fauna of St. Helena ; and I then expressed 
my belief, from the mere diversity of configuration presented 
by the five species of Microxylobius which had been brought 
to light, that the members of that abnormal little group would 
almost certainly be ascertained to be locally abundant, and, 
since the same might be urged with no less force for that 
extraordinary genus Notioxenusfi that there was every reason 
to suspect that the Rhyncliophora of this mountain-island are, 
in proportion to its size, both numerous and eccentric.” 

I have thought it worth while to allude to these casual ob- 
servations of my own, because they have been so strictly and 
literally verified. Not only have Microxylobius and Notioxenus 
been augmented by newly discovered exponents, but every- 
thing tends to prove that they are immeasiu'ably the most 
significant of the island forms : indeed an undescribed and 
closely related genus has been detected alongside the latter, as 
though still further to enhance the local importance of that 
})articular Anthribideous type. Scarcely less characteristic, 
however, than even these three, are, perhaps, the obscure Cur- 


i\Ir. T. V. AVollaston on the Coleopiera of St, Helena, 301 

ciilionideous groups Nesiotes and Trachyphloeosoma ; and, if in- 
deed it be truly aboriginal (and there is no reason for suspect- 
ing the contrary), that curious little blind Cossonid, the Pent- 
arthrum suhccecum^ may be added to the number, in Avhich 
case the Rhyncliophora alone would monopolize no less than 
six of the most anomalous endemic genera ! Indeed the only 
other manifestly indigenous forms which I should define as 
par excellence abnormal ” are llaplotliorax of the Carabidae, 
and peiliaps Mellissius of the Lainelli corns, neither of which, 
however, are so eccentric in their structure as the six Rhyn- 
chophorous ones to which I have just alluded. 

Ajmrt^ however, from their singularity of type, it may be 
useful, in order to illustrate the mere numerical preponderance 
of the weevils (as regards both species and genus) in the 
St.-Helena catalogue, to distribute the forty-eight members of 
the fauna (to which I have already called attention) under the 
twelve great sections into which the Coleoptera are usually 
supposed to arrange themselves. I am well aware that the 
paucity of the list itself, and perhaps likewise the totally un- 
explored state of the pools and streams, may be sufficient to 
account for many an apparent anomaly — such as, for instance, 
the complete absence of the water-beetles and Brachelytra ; 
but still, after making every allowance for the manifest im- 
perfection of the material, the broad fact does undoubtedly 
remain that the researches of ]\lessrs. Melliss, Bcwicke, and 
others (and that, too, whilst by no means neglecting the mi- 
nuter groups) have brought to light more representatives of 
the Bliynchopliora than of all the other departments combined. 
And that this is truly the case, a glance at the following table 


will suffice to show : — 

Ehynchophora 26 

Cordjlocerata (i, e, Lamellicorns &c.) 6 

Geodephaga 5 

Heteromera 3 

Philhydrida 2 

Phytophaga 2 

Pseudotrimera 2 

Necrophaga 1 

Priocerata 1 

Hydradephaga 0 

Brachelytra 0 

Eucerata 0 


48 * 

* It is scarcely necessary to consider what would be the result were 
the whole seventy-four species which are enumerated in the present list 
distributed under these twelve primary departments, because (as already 


302 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St, Helena, 

It will be seen, on reference, that the seventy-four species 
of the subjoined list distribute themselves under twenty-eight 
families and no less than fifty genera. Of these seventy-four 
species I have been compelled to treat about forty as if 
they had not been detected in any other country, though it is 
probable that some five or six of them (as, for instance, the 
Histeridce^ the Anoimin confertuiUj and the Bruchi) will be 
found eventually to have been already described. The seven 
genera which would appear to be peculiar to the island are 
Haplothorax (of the Carabidae), MelUssius (of the Dynastidm), 
Microxylohius^ NesioteSj and Trachyphloeosoma (of the Curcu- 
lionida3), 2 oo^ NotioxenxLS and Homoeodera (of the Anthribidse), 
three of which [MelUssius^ Trachyphloeosomaj dxiA Homoeodera) 
have been enunciated for the first time in this memoir. The 
species which in the present paper I have described as new are 
the twenty-five following : — 

Bembidiiim Mellissii. 

Tribalus 4-striatus. 

Sapriniis lautua. 

Mellissius eadoxus. 

adumbratus, 

Heteroderes puncticoUis. 

Anobium confertum. 

Tomiciis femiilus. 

Microxylobius vestitus. 

obliteratus. 

debilis. 

monilicomis. 

Pentarthrum subcaeciim. 

If we exclude from consideration the twenty-six species 
(above alluded to) which have unquestionably been brought 
into the island through the medium of commerce, and which 
enter into the fauna of nearly every civilized country, I need 
scarcely add that the St.-Helena list, as hitherto made known, 
possesses nothing whatever in common with those of the three 
sub-African archipelagos which lie further to the north — 
though the great development of the Curculionideous sub- 
family Cossonides is a remarkable fact which is more or less 
conspicuous throughout the whole of them. 


Nesiotes asperatus. 
Tracbypbloeosoma setosuni. 
Sciobius subnodosus. 
Notioxenus dimidiatus, 

aliitaceiis. 

Homoeodera rotimdipenuis. 

aliitaceicollis, 

pygmaea. 

Brucbus rufobrunneus. 

advena. 

Zophobas concolor, 
Mordella Mellissiana. 


stated) tbe twenty-six which have manifestly been introduced (and most 
of them, perhaps, quite recently) can have no real connexion with the 
true fauna of the island ; nevertheless, even were we to do so, the^?o52Yio??of 
the Rhynclwphora as the most extensive of the various groups (although 
its relative proportion to them would be lowered) would remain the 
same. Whilst in tlie former case, however, it numbers twenty-six, and 
the remaining sections (combined) twenty-two, in this instance it would 
contain thirty, and the other eleven divisions forty-four. 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptem of St. Helena. 303 

Fam. 1. Carabidse. 

Genus 1. Haplothorax. 

Waterhouse, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. hi. 207 [script. Ajplo- 
thorax] (1841). 

1. Ha])lothorax Burchellii. 

Aplothorax Burchellii^ Waterh., loc. cit, pi. 12. f. 1 (1841). 

A truly indigenous and noble Carabid, which appears, how- 
ever, to be both local and extremely scarce. Although re- 
ceived many years ago from St. Helena, where it was first 
detected by the African traveller Dr. Burchell, the only ex- 
amples of it which I have myself seen have been captured by 
Mr. Melliss. 

Genus 2. Calosoma. 

Weber, Obs. Ent. 20 (1801). 

2. Calosoma haligena, 

C. supra aut obscure seneum aut fere (vel etiam omnino) nigrum, 
subopacum ; capite irregulariter punctato ; prothorace parvo, 
transvcrso-subcordato, antice ad latera valde rotundato, angulis 
posticis retrorsum productis sed obtusis, densissime ruguloso- 
punctato, utriuque intra angulos posticos late et profunde im- 
presso ; elytris grosse crenato-striatis, interstitus oequahter ele- 
vatis ac transversim imbricato-rugatis, punctis magnis plus minus 
aenescentibus vel cuprescentibus in triphci serie notatis ; antennis 
pedibusque nigris aut piceo-nigris. 

Mas^ plerumque vix minor, pedibus sensim crassioribus, tibiis poste- 
rioribus (prsesertim intermediis) conspicue curvatis, tarsis anticis 
valde dilatatis. 

Foem., plerumque vix major, pedibus sensim gracilioribus, tibiis iii- 
termediis vix curvatis, posticis fere rectis, tarsis anticis sim- 
plicibus. 

Long. corp. lin. 9-11. 

Calosoma haligena^ WoU., Jomna. of Ent. i. 208 (18C1). 

Of this fine Calosoma a single example was captured at St. 
Helena (in July 1860) by the late Mr. Bewicke, and several 
more have since been communicated by Mr. Melliss. It seems 
to belong to the same type as the African species sene- 
galense and rugosumy from the former of which it is never- 
theless abundantly distinct. From the latter it differs (inter 
alia) in being more depressed, and in having its coppery 
punctures smaller, in its pro thorax being more deeply rugose 
before and behind, and in its legs being less robust. As re- 
gards colour, it appears to be either dull brassy or nearly (if 
not indeed altogether) black ; and its males have their four 


304 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleojotera of St, Helena, 

posterior tibise (particularly, however, the intermediate pair) 
conspicuously curved, whilst in the opposite sex the hinder 
ones are nearly (if not quite) straight, and even the middle 
pair but very slightly bent inwards. Whether the (7. Helence 
of Hope was established on an unusually small and dark in- 
dividual of this species I cannot feel quite positive ; but as 
the published description of it does not by any means tally 
with the C, haligena^ I am compelled (in the absence of evi- 
dence which is positive) to retain the two as distinct. If, how- 
ever, they should prove ultimately to be conspecific, I need 
scarcely add that the name of Helence (as the prior one) will 
of course have to be adopted. 

3. Calosoma Helence, 

C, atrum ; elytrorum margine aeneo ; antennis basi piceis, pedi- 
busque nigris. Long. lin. 8 ; lat. lin. 

Habitat in ins. Sanctae Helenae. In Mus, Bom, Darwin, 

‘‘Atrum ; elytris striatis margine aeneo, punctisqiie excavatis triplici 
serie dispositis. Antennae 4 primis articulis piceis, reliquis fusco- 
pubescentibiis. Corpus supra et infra nigrum. Thorax transverse 
ovatus, marginatus. Elytra striata, subrugosa ; marginibus ex- 
temis subvirescentibus, punctisque excavatis triplici serie ordi- 
natis. Pedes nigri, tibiis intermediis incurvis.” [Ex 

Caloso7na HeleiKB^ Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, ii. 130 (1838), 

Although perhaps it is scarcely likely that so small an 
island as St. Helena should possess two species of Calosoma^ 
nevertheless, since the above description (which I have trans- 
cribed verbatim from Mr. Hope’s paper) does not by any 
means agree with that of the G, haligena^ I can scarcely take 
upon myself to regard the C, Helence as identical with the 
latter, and I have therefore (until at any rate further evidence 
shall settle the question) cited it as distinct. Judging from 
the published diagnosis, the C. Helence would appear to be 
smaller than the haligena ; and it is stated to be deep black, 
though there is of course a possibility that the more brassy 
form did not happen to be included amongst the individuals 
which were examined by Mr. Hope. In the C, Helence the 
elytra, too, are defined as merely “ striata, subrugosa ; ” 
whereas those of the haligena are deeply crenate-striate and 
have their interstices transversely imbricated in a most coarse 
and conspicuous manner 5 and the intermediate tibiae only of 
Mr. Hope’s species are said to be emwed, whereas in the C, 
haligena the four hinder ones of the male sex are powerfully 
arcuate. Still, it is of comse possible that the C. Helence may 
have been defined from an unusually small and dark example 
of what I subsequently enunciated under the trivial name of 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St, Helena, 305 

haligena ; and if that should prove eventually to have been 
the case, the title proposed for the species by Mr. Hope will 
have to be retained. 

Genus 3. Pristonychus. 

Dejean, Spec, des Col. iii. 43 (1828). 

4. Pristonychus comjylanatus, 

Pristonychus complanatus, Dej., loc. cit. 58 (1828). 

alatusy WoU., Ins. Mad. 27 (1854). 

complanatuSj Id,, Col. Atl. 27 (1865). 

Lcemosthenes complanatus, Harold, Cat. Col. 356 (1868). 

An insect of a widely acquired geographical range, particu- 
larly, however, in Mediterranean latitudes — occurring in Portu- 
gal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, Egypt, 
Barbary, &c. It is abundant also in the Azores, Madeiras, 
and Canaries, and has been reported even from Chili. At St. 
Helena it has been met with both by Mr. Melliss and the late 
Mr. Bewicke ; and I have seen examples of it from the same 
island in the collection of Mr. A. Fry. 

Genus 4. Bembidium. 

Latreille, Hist. Nat. viii. 221 (1804). 

(Subgenus Notai)hus, Dej.) 

5. Bembidium Mellissii,^ n. sp. 

B, oblongum, subopacum, alutaceura ; capite prothoraceque subaeneo 
nigro-viridibus, hoc brevi subcordato, utrinque intra angulos pos- 
ticos profunde impresso (impressionibus extus striola terminatis) ; 
elytris depressiusculis, profunde striato-punctatis (striis postice 
evanescentibus), lurido-testaceis sed fasciis maculisve disjunctis 
nigrescentibus ornatis ; an tennis pedib usque piceo-testaceis, illis 
versus apicem horumque femoribus paulo obscurioribus. 

MaSf tarsorum anticorum art® basilari valde dilatato. 

Long. corp. hn. 2. 

Two examples only of this beautiful Bembidium (which be- 
longs to the same group as the European B. varium and flam- 
mulatum) were taken by Mr. Melliss ; but I have no note as to 
the precise locality. It is well distinguished by its dull brassy- 
green head and prothorax, and lurid-testaceous elytra — the 
latter of Avhich are ornamented with a number of darker fasciae 
and cloudy patches, forming (on each elytron) a large sub- 
apical blotch, a postmedial zigzag (or deeply dentate) fascia, 
and two squarish antemedial spots placed in an oblique direc- 
tion (from the shoulder) on the fore disk. The elytral striae 


306 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleojptera of St. Helena. 

are coarsely and closely punctured^ or crenate, and there are 
two large punctiform impressions on the third interval from 
the suture. 


Fam. 2. Sphseridiadse. 

Genus 5. Dactylosternum. 

Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 99 (1854). 

6. Dactylosternum ahdominale. 

Sphceridium ahdominale^ Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 79 (1792). 

Dactylosternum Roussetii, Woll., Ins. Mad. 99, tab. iii. f. 1 (1854). 

ahdominale. Id., Col. Atl. 80 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 48 (1867). 

Several specimens of this widely spread insect were taken 
in St. Helena by Mr. Melliss, and there can be no doubt that 
the species has become naturalized in the island through 
human agencies. Although found more particularly in Medi- 
teiTanean latitudes, it has acquired an extended geographical 
range — occurring in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and 
Cape Verde archipelagos, and being reported even from Mada- 
gascar, Bomrbon, and the East Indies. 

Genus 6. SPHiERiDiUM. 

Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 66 (1775). 

7. Sphceridium dytiscoides. 

/S^. ^^ferrugineum, elytris atris. Habitat in ins. St. Helena). Mus. 
Dom. Banks. Statura et magnitudo S. scarahceoides ; totum gla- 
brum, nitidum. Antennse rufse, perfoliatse. Caput, thorax, 
pectus, abdomen rufa ; elytra atra, glabra.” [Ex Fahrido.^ 

SphcBridium dytiscoides, Fab., Syst. Ent. 67 (1775). 

, Oliv., Ent. 2. 15, tab. 2. f. 10 (1790). 

, Fab., Ent, Syst. i. 79 (1792). 

, Id., Syst, Eleu. i. 94 (1801). 

I have no means of determining what this insect (the dia- 
gnosis of which I have copied verbatim from the ^ Systema En- 
tomologim ’) really is ; but, judging from the rough figime of it 
which is given by Olivier, it would appear to me to be either 
a true (though possibly small) Sjyhceridium or else an unusu- 
ally large Cercyon^ or (still more probably perhaps) a Gyclo- 
notum — with the head and prothorax rufo-ferruginous"and the 
elytra black. Nevertheless, as it was described by Fabricius 
from a specimen (or specimens) in the cabinet of Sir Joseph 
Banks, which had been obtained at St. Helena, I have no 
choice but to include it in the present enumeration ; and I can 
only hope that some future collector in the island may again 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Ooleo^ptera of St. Helena. 307 

bring the species to light, and so enable us to decide positively 
what it is. 


Fam. 3. CucujidsB. 

Genus 7. L^mophlceus. 

(Dejean) Erichs., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 315 (1845). 

8 . Lcemoph loeus usillus ^ . 

CuckJus minutuSj Oliv. [nec Ku^el. 1791], Ent. iv. bis, 8, 9 (1795). 

piisillusj Scbon., Syn. Ins. iii. 65 (1817). 

Lcemophlceus pusillus, WoU., Col. Atl. 132 (1865). 

Of the little L. jyusilhis — an insect so liable to transmission, 
along with grain and other articles of commerce, throughout 
the civilized world — a single example is now before me which 
was taken by Mr. Melliss at St. Helena ; but, having clearly 
no connexion with the real fauna of the island, it is of little 
geographical importance. The species has, in like manner, 
established itself in the Madeiran and Canarian groups. 

Genus 8. Cryptamorpha. 

Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 156 (1854). 

9. Gryptamorjplia nvasce. 

Orypiamorpha musce^ WoU., loc. cit. 157, tab. iv. f. 1 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 51 (1857). 

Id., Col. Atl. 133 (1865). 

A single example of this prettily marked insect — which in 
Madeira occurs beneath the loose outer fibre of Banana stems 
in and around Funchal — has been taken at St. Helena by Mr. 
Melliss. I have no note as to its exact place of capture ; but 
if (as in Madeira) it is attached to the Bananas, in all proba- 
bility the species has been introduced into the island. 

Fain. 4. Cryptophagidae. 

Genus 9. Cryptophagus. 

Herbst, Kaf. iv. 172 (1792). 

10. Cryptojyhagus affinis 

Cryptophagus affinis , Sturm, Deutscbl. Fna. xvi. 79 (1845). 

, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutschl. iii. 360 (1846). 

Woll., Col. Atl. 137 (1865). 

A common European Cryptophagus which — like Lcemo- 
phloeus p>usillusj Mycetcea liirta^ and others— must clearly 
have been imported into the island from more northern lati- 


308 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St. Helena. 

tudes ; and therefore, even if fairly established (as is the ease 
with it in the Azorean, ]\Iadeiran, and Canarian groups), it 
can of course have no connexion wliatevcr with the original 
fauna of St. Helena. A single specimen of it, which I have 
examined with great care, has been captured (in all probability 
in some house or granary) by Mr. Melliss. 


Fam. 5. Mycetophagidse. 

Genus 10. Mycet^a. 

(Kirby) Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. iii. 80 (1830). 

11. Mycetcea hirta^. 

Dennestes fumatuSj Mshm. [nec Linn., 17G7J, Ent. Brit. 05 (1802). 

Silpha hiHay Mshm., Ent. Jirit. 124 (1802). 

Cryptoph(if/us hirtus, GylL, Ins. Suec. i. 184 (1808). 

Mijcctcea fumataj Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. iii. 81 (1830). 

Mrta, Well., Col. Atl. 166 (1805). 

The widely distributed European M. liirta — which is so 
eminently liable to become naturalized, in liouses and culti- 
vated spots, throughout the civilized world — appears, from a 
single example now before me which was taken by Mr. Melliss, 
to have established itself at St. Helena ; but, like so many 
others of the species alluded to in this paper, it can have nothing 
whatever to do with the real fauna of the island. It has, in 
like manner, been introduced into the Azorean and Madeiran 
archipelagos, in the latter of which I have usually met with it 
crawling on the inner walls of houses. 


Genus 11. Typii^ea. 

(Kirby) Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. iii. 70 (1830). 

12. Tyjjlma fumata^. 

Dermestes fumatus^ Linn., Syst. Nat. ii. 664 (1707). 

Typhoid fumata. Woll., Col. Atl. 167 (1805). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 78 (1807). 

There is scarcely any insect which has acquired (doubtless 
through human agencies) a wider geographical range than the 
common European T. fumata] and therefore it is not surprising 
that it should liave been met with by Mr. ]\[clliss (judging 
from a single example which he has communicated to me) at 
St. Helena. It occurs in the north of Africa, and abounds in 
the Azores, Madciras, Canaries, and Cape Verdes ; and it has 
even been reported likewise from the United States. 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St. Helena. 309 

Fain. G. Dermestidae. 

Genus 12. Deumestes. 

Linnreus, Syst. Nat. ii. 561 (1767). 

13. Dermestes cadavevinus^ . 

Dermestes cadaverinuS) Fab., Syst. Ent. 55 (1775). 

, Oliv., Ent. ii. 9. 3 (1790). 

domcsticusy (Gobi.) Germ.» Ins. Spec. Nov. 85. 143 (1824). 

cndiwcrinnSy Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 301 (1861). 

This widely spread Dermestes having originally been de- 
seribed by Fabrieius (in 1775) from a St.-IIelena example, in 
the collection of Sir Joseph Banks, it seems scarcely right to 
omit it from the present memoir, even though 1 do not myself 
happen to have seen a specimen of it from that island. Being 
peculiarly liable to transmission, in various articles of mer- 
chandise and commerce, throughout the civilized world, it has 
been made to acquire a very extensive geographical range, — 
being recorded not only in Europe, but even from South 
America, Mexico, Otaheite, the East Indies, Siberia, Arabia, 
Ac. ; and it was obtained abundantly, by the late Mr. Bewickc, 
at Ascension. Speaking of it, in 1861, in a short paper on 
Ascension Coleoptera, 1 remarked that it belongs to the se- 
cond of Erichson’s sections, in which the third and fourth 
abdominal segments of tlic males (instead of the fourth alone) 
are furnished beneath Avith a little circular fossette armed with 
a cone (or convergent fasciculus) of powerful bristles. In 
siiecific details, it may be known from its several allies by its 
(l)lack) upper surface being uniformly and rather densely 
clothed Avitli a coarse yelloAvish-eiiiercous pile, by its rather 
elongate and slightly narrow outline, and by its abdominal 
under segments having, each of them, two roundish patches 
of darker pile in their centre (gradually diminishing and ap- 
proximating in each successive segment towards the apex), 
and a sublimate one at either lateral edge.” 

14. Dermestes vuljnnus^. 

Dermestes vidpimtSy Fab., Spec. Ids. i. 64 (1781). 

, Woll, Col. Atl. 159 (1866). 

, Id., Col. Ilesp. 79 (1867). 

An example of this almost cosmojiolitan Dermestes (Avhich 
is so well characterized by the very minute spinulc with Avhich 
the extreme apex of each of its elytra is furnished) Avas taken 
by Mr. Mclliss at St. Helena ; but the species, Avhich (like 
the D. cadaverinus) is so eminently liable to accidental dis- 
semination along with various articles of commerce and mcr- 


310 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoj^tera of St, Helena, 

chandise, is of course totally unconnected with the true fauna 
of the island. It has been established equally in the Madeiran, 
Canarian, and Cape Verde groups. 

Genus 13. Attagenus. 

Latreille, Hist. Nat. iii. 121 (1802). 

15. Attagenus gloriosce^, 

Anthrenus Gloriosce, Fab., Syst. Eleu. i. 107 (1801), 

JEthriostoma gloriosce^ Motscb., Etud. Ent. 146 (1858). 

Attagenus Gloriosce, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 301 (1861). 

Of this prettily fasciated Attagenus — which has acquired, 
through the medium of commerce, an almost cosmopolitan 
range — two examples, now before me, were captmred by Mr. 
Melliss at St. Helena. The species has established itself like- 
wise in the island of Ascension — where it was taken, during 
April 1860, by the late Mr. Bewicke ; and it is reported also 
from India, Eastern Afxdca, and America. 

Earn. 7. Histeridae. 

Genus 14. Tribalus. 

Erich son, in Klug, Jahrb. i. 164 (1834). 

16. Tribalus A-striatus^ n. sp. 

T, rotundato-ovalis, piceo-niger, nitidus, ubique (in disco levins) 
punctatus ; fronte minutius pnnctnlata, subsemicirculari, angulis 
anticis subrectis, oculis parvis, simplici (nec transversim cari- 
nata); elytrorum striis 4 clorsalibus sat profundis, punctatis, 
usque ad medium ductis, suturali nuUa sed ad basim ipsam bre- 
viter arcuatim conspicua, Immerali tenui obliqua ; pygidio per- 
pendicular! ; antennis pedibusque piceis ; tibiis anticis leviter 
circa 5- vel 6-denticulatis. 

Long. corp. lin. vix 1|. 

The rather small size and entirely punctulated surface of 
this little Histerid, combined with its semicircular w? 2 carinated 
forehead, and the fact of its elytra being totally free from a 
sutural stria (which is only traceable as a very short subscu- 
tellar arcuated impression), affiliate it with the small group 
of species which constitute the genus Tribalus ; but it seems 
to differ {inter alia) from the whole of them in having four 
very distinct dorsal punctured stride continued to about the 
middle of each elytron. Apart from other characters, its 
piceous-black hue, subrufescent limbs, and perpendicular py- 
gidium will serve additionally to distinguish it. The single 
example from which the above diagnosis has been compiled 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Goleoptera of St, Helena. 311 

was communicated by Mr. Melliss, along with his other St.- 
Helena captures. 


Genus 15. Sapkinus. 

Erichson, in Klug, Jahrb. i. 172 (1834), 

17. Sajprinus lautus^ n. sp. 

S, submetallicus, nitidissimus ; capite prothoraceque senescentibus, 
illo dense punctato, fronte ab epistomate linea transversa distincte 
divisa, hoc versus latera et basin grosse punctato, in disco Iteviore, 
ad latera nudo (nec ciliato) ; elytris cyaneis (vel subviresccnti- 
cyaneis), sat dense ruguloso-punctatis, punctis in disco antico et 
versus humeros obsoletis, striis humeralihus obsoletis, suhhumerali 
distiucta, longe ultra medium postice ducta, 4 dorsalihus ad me- 
dium terminatis (4^^ in suturalem integram antice arcuatam 
coeunte) ; pygidio propygidioque obscurioribus, profunde punc- 
tatis ; antenuis pedibusque nigro-piceis ; tibiis anticis circa 8-9- 
den ticulatis. 

Long. corp. lin. 3. 

The blue tinge (at any rate on the elytra) and by no means 
small size of this Sa 2 :>rinus are somewhat suggestive at first 
sight of the widely spread 8. semijounctatus ; but the fact of 
its epistome being divided from the forehead by a strong trans- 
verse line, in conjunction with its sutural stria being complete, 
and uniting in front with the fourth discal one, remove it into 
a totally different section of the genus — characterized by such 
North- American species as Javeti^ patruelis^ and dimidiati- 
pennis^ which, however, appear to be of considerably smaller 
stature and less punctured on the surface. A single example of 
this species is amongst the Coleoptera found by Mr. Melliss at 
St. Helena, 

Earn. 8. Aphodiadac. 

Genus 16. Aphodius. 

Illiger, Kaf. Preuss. i. 28 (1798). 

18. Aphodius Uvidus^, 

Scarahceus lividus, Oliv., Ent. i. 3. 86 (1789). 

Aphodius lividusy Woll., Col. Atl. 178 (1865). 

Id., Col, Hesp. 89 (1867). 

A single example of this widely spread European Aphodius 
— which occurs throughout northern and western Africa, and 
in the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape Verde archi- 
pelagos — is amongst the Coleoptera collected at St. Helena by 
Mr. Melliss ; but as it is an insect which easily becomes dis- 
seminated through indirect human agencies (particularly the 


312 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St. Helena. 

transportation of cattle) , I feel satisfied that it has no connexion 
whatever with the original fauna of so remote an island. 

Fam. 9. Rutelidae. 

(Subfam. Anoplognathides.) 

Genus 17. Adoretus. 

(Eschcholtz) De Casteln., Hist. Nat. des Col. ii. 142 (1840). 
19. Adoretus versutus. 

A. ovato-oblongus, elongatus, depressiusculus, sat nitidus, valde 
alatus, brunneus pilisque brevibus cinereis demissis parce irro- 
ratus; capite prothoraceque obscnrioribus, illo magno rugose 
punctato, clypeo semicirciilari ad marginem recurvo, oculis maxi- 
mis, hoc brevissimo marginato grosse punctato, ad latera rotun- 
dato, angulis anticis porrectis, posticis rotundato-obtusis ; elytris 
elongatis, punctato-rugosis (punctis, saltern majoribus versus la- 
tera, subseriatim dispositis), parce longitudinahter costatis ; an- 
tennis pedibusque rufo-ferrugineis ; tibiis anticis extus 3-dentatis : 
unguiculis inaequalibus. 

Long. corp. lin. 5|-6. 

Adoretus vestitusy [necReiche, 1847J, Res.Eugen. 66 (1858). 
versutuSf Harold, Col. Hefte, v. (1869). 

An Adoretus which appears to be rather common at St. 
Helena. It may be known amongst the few Lamellicorns 
here enumerated by its narrowish, oblong outline, less convex 
body (which is sparingly clothed with a short, decumbent, 
cinereous pile) and more yellowisliAiXQrmi hue, by its rather 
large headj greatly developed eyes, and semicircular clypeus, 
by its extremely abbreviated prothorax and subcostate, rugu- 
lose elytra, and by its unequal claws. The examples from 
which I have drawn out the above diagnosis were captured 
by Mr. Melliss. 

Fam. 10. Dynastidae. 

(Subfam. Pentodontides.) 

Genus 18. Heteronychus. 

(Dejean) Burm., Handb, der Ent. v. 90 (1847). 

20. Heteronychus arator. 

Scarahceus arator y Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 33 (1792). 

Geotrupes arator, Fab., Syst. Eleu. i. 21 (1801). 

Heteronychus arator, Burm., loc. cit. 94 (1847). 

Sanctce-Helence, Blanch., Voy. Pole Sud, iv. 105, pi. 7. f. 6 (1853). 

arator, Woll., in Joum. of Ent. i, 210 (1861). 

The South-African H. arator appears to be common at St. 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St. Helena. 313 

Helena — where it was taken hy the late Mr. Bewicke in 1860, 
and subsequently in considerable abundance by Mr. Melliss. 
It is conspecific with the insect characterized by Blanchard in 
the entomological portion of Dumont d’Urville’s ^ Voyage au 
Pole Sud sur les Corvettes 1’ Astrolabe et la Zelee ’ (p. 105, 
pi. 7. f. 6) under the title of H Sanctce-Helence. 

Apart from its numerous and strictly generic characters, the 
H. arator may at once be known from the two species of 
Mellissms by being rather smaller, darker, brighter, and more 
cylindric, by its clypeus being more rugose, and bisinuated 
(instead of truncate) in front, by its prothorax being un- 
sculptured, and by the punctures of its elytra being distributed 
in regular stride. Amongst other features, its antennae are 10- 
(instead of 9-) articulate, its propygidium is furnished with 
two long file-like divergent bands for the pui'pose of stridula- 
tion by friction against the inner surface of the apex of its 
elytra, and its wings are fully developed. 

Genus 19. Mellissius (nov. gen.). 

Corpus crassum, supra nudmn, subtus pilis longis robnstis obsi- 
tum : capiie triangular!, clypeo apice truncato, necnon ibidem atque 
subito in genis (ante oculos) plus minus incrassato recurve, fronte in 
medio vel obsolete vel conspicue tuberculata: proiliorace magno, 
convexo, ad latera suba3qualiter valde rotundato, in utroque sexu 
nisi fallor (certe in masculo) simplici, nee antice impresso ; pro- 
sternali loho (inter coxas anticas) brevi, piloso : scutello semicircuiari- 
triangular! : alis minutis, obsoletis : histrumentis stridulantibus aut 
fere nuUis, aut propygidium phculis brevibus tuberculisve trans- 
versis ubique dense asperantibus. Antennce 9-art®: art®. I"'® elon- 
gate, robusto, subclavato, subflexuoso, 2^® brevi transverse, 3^*® 
min ore breviore, 4^®, 6^® gradatim paulo crescentibus, reliquis 

clavam magnam, foliatam, ovalem, 3-articulatam efficientibus. 
Lahrum cl 3 q)eo absconditum. Mandibulce corncse, robustse, subtri- 
angulares, concavae, apice incurvae obtusae, extus setis lougissimis 
instructae. Maodllariim lohus internus obsoletus, externm latus, 
suboblongus, setisque longissimis ubique obsitus. Palporum macciU 
larium articulus ultimus obovato-obloiigus, lahialium subobovatus. 
Mentum (ligulam occultans) elongatum, subtriangulare, comeura, 
pilis longissimis obsitum. Pedes fossorii, robust!, subaequales : tihiis 
anticis extus fortiter tridentatis, posteriorihus apice truncatis ciliatis : 
tarsorum articido hasilari subtriangulari, ultimo wirndculis acqualibus 
armato. 

The structural features of the group which I have enunci- 
ated above bring it into close proximity to the Australian 
genera Cheiroplatys and Isodon ; but a reference to the dia- 
gnosis will show that it is abundantly distinct from them botli. 
Unlike them, also, it appears, at any rate in one of the two 

Ann. d: Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 4. Vol. 'w. 23 


314 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoj^tera of St, Helena, 

species described below, to have organs for slight stridulation ; 
and its prothorax is apparently entire in both sexes (for as it 
is so in 15 males which are now before me, we may conclude 
h fortiori that this is equally the case in the opposite sex) ; and 
its anterior male tibia3 are not enlarged as in Cheiroplatys, 
The Mellissii are practically apterous, their wings being very 
small and nidimentary, and they seem to be eminently fossorial. 
In its simple (or unimpressed) prothorax the genus agrees 
with the European and African group Peniodon ; but, apart 
from other differences, the members of the latter have their 
organs for stridulation exceedingly conspicuous, occupying, 
however, the central part only of the propygidium. 

I have had much pleasure in retaining for the present genus 
the name proposed for it by Mr. Bates — in honour of J. C. 
Melliss, Esq., who has supplied the greater portion of the 
material for this memoir, and to whose researches we are con- 
sequently indebted for the additional light which has been 
thrown upon the small but highly interesting fauna of St. 
Helena. 

21. Mellissuis eudoxus^ n. sp. 

M, crassus, subquadrato-ovatus, rufo-piceus, nitidus ; capite grosse 
ruguloso-punctato (fere scabroso), clypeo lato subtriangulari 
apice truncate et ibidem paulo recurve lateribus anguste margi- 
nate ; pretherace magne, cenvexe, gresse punctate, angulis anticis 
subperrectis acntiusculis, posticis retundate-ebtusis, ad latera 
rotundate, in medie vix subangulato, lenge fulve-ciliate ; elytris 
subquadratis sed pene medium latiusculis, apice subtruncate-ab- 
breviatis (angulis suturalibus paule retundatis), prepygidium 
transversum sublaeve (mucrenibus valde transversis perpaucis 
selum in medie parcissime adspersum) emnine ecciiltantibus, 
gresse submalleate-punctatis (punctis sat prefundis et perpaucis 
quasi in sulcis ebseletissimis undulatis evanescentibus, prjeter 
sulcum suturalem rectum, ebselete dispesitis) ; pedibus rebustis, 
fesseriis, fulve-pilesis. 

Mas clypee pestice in medie ebselete tuberculate (vix cernuto). 
Fcem, adbuc latet. 

Long. corp. lin. 7-8|. 

Scarahceus eudoxus^ in Dej. Cat. 168 (1837). 

Although small for the Dynastidce^ this species and the fol- 
lowing one are the largest of the Lamellicoms which have 
hitherto been detected at St. Helena ; and while both of them 
may be known by their thick, ovate-squarish bodies (they 
being rather widened posteriorly), their bald though sculptured 
upper surfaces, their strong fossorial ciliated legs, and their 
rufo-piceous colour, the M, eudoxus (which is, on the average, 
a trifle smaller than the udumhratus) is further conspicuous by 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St, Helena, 315 

being the more shining and deeply punctured of the two, by 
its clypeus being wider, less margined at the sides, and less 
recui-ved at the tip, and by its elytra (some of the punctures 
of which have a faint tendency to arrange themselves in yery 
obsolete, evanescent, longitudinal, flexuous grooves) being not 
only less straightly truncate (or more rounded-off separately) 
at their apex, but likewise concealing altogether the propygi- 
dium — ^which is straight and transverse (instead of being tri- 
angular), and so destitute of asperities (there being traces of 
only a very few transverse plaits, or short, broken file-like 
ridges, in the centre behind) that I am exceedingly doubtful 
whether the insect is able in reality to stridulate. 

The M, eudoxus seems to be thoroughly indigenous to the 
island, and found principally in cultivated regions of a rather 
high altitude — according to Mr. Melliss, by whom the 12 ex- 
amples from which the above diagnosis has been compiled 
were collected. It appears, however, to have been brought 
from St. Helena many years ago ; for it is cited in Dejean’s 
Catalogue under the name of Scarahceus eudoxus ; and I am 
informed by Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse that there are two speci- 
mens (likewise unquestionably males ”) in the British Mu- 
seum which had been placed aside as in all probability the 
type of some undefined group, and which are evidently con- 
specific with the present insect, 

22. Mellissius adumbratusy n. sp. 

M, crassus, subquadrato-ovatus, rufo-piceus, suhopacus ; capita in- 
sequaiiter punctate, fronte fere impunctata ; clypeo triangulari 
apice truncate et valde recurve, lateribus gresse marginate ; pre- 
therace magne, cenvexe, gresse sed leviter punctate, angulis an- 
ticis perrectis, acutis, pesticis retundate-obtusis, ad latera retun- 
dato, in medie subangulate, fulvo-ciliate ; elytris subquadratis 
sed pene medium latiusculis, apice recte truncate-abbreviatis 
(angulis suturalibus subrectis), prepygidium subtriangulare (mu- 
crenibus transversis dense asperatum) vix eccultantibus, gresse 
sed leviter submall eate-punctatis (punctis nulle mede in seriebus 
lengitudinalibus, linea levi suturali excepta, dispesitis) ; pedibus 
rebustis, fesseriis, parce fulve-pilesis. 

Mas clypee pestice tubercule medie magne conspicue cernuto. 

Fcem, adhuc latet. 

Leng. cerp. lin. 8-9|. 

Amongst 15 examples, collected by Mr. Melliss and belong- 
ing to the present genus, there are three which are rather 
larger and nearly opake (the remainder being shining), and 
with the obscure frontal tubercle developed into a distinct 
corneous process, so that my first impression was that they 

23 * 


316 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St. Helena. 

were evidently the opposite sex of the smaller form — though, 
at the same time, if males (as their comparatively armed cly- 
pens would imply them to be), I should have been driven to 
the anomalous conclusion that the individuals of that particular 
sex were the larger and less brilliant of the two ! and more- 
over, on examination.^ so many other characters presented 
themselves that I began to feel doubtful whether they were 
not, after all, specifically distinct, I therefore sent two of them 
to Mr. C, 0. Waterhouse, of the British Museum, who has 
lately paid considerable attention to the Lamellicorns, and he 
is decidedly of opinion that they cannot be referred to the 
same species as the other examples which I forwarded to him. 
Indeed Mr. Waterhouse has shown by dissection that these 
two opake ones are males ; and as I have myself since opened 
the abdomen of the third, as well as those of eleven out of the 
12 brighter individuals, and find them all to be males likewise ! 
there can be no longer any question that the two are positively 
distinct^. 

Assuming therefore that the above opinion is correct (and 
it is difficult to see how it can be otherwise), the M, adumhratus 
recedes from the eudoxus in being more opake and (on the 
average) a little larger, in its sculpture being altogether shal- 
lower and less rough, in its frontal tubercle (though I can 
only vouch for the male sex) being very much more developed, 
in its clypeus being narrower, more coarsely margined at the 
sides and more recurved at the tip, in its anterior pro thoracic 
angles being rather more porrect and acute, and in its elytra 
[none of the punctures of which have apparently any decided 
tendency to be longitudinally distributed in obsolete flextious 
evanescent grooves) being more straightly truncate behind (or 
with the sutural angles less rounded-off), so as to expose a 
portion of the propygidium — which is itself more triangular 
(or pointed in the centre), instead of being separated from the 
l^ygidiura by a straight suture, and is likewise roughened all 
over (very densely so in the middle) with short ti’ansverse 
plaits or tubercles (well separated from each other) which 
clearly are employed by the insect for the purposes of stridula- 
tion. This stridulating-powcr is very important ; and I doubt 
whether the preceding species can stridulate (at any rate 
audibly so to us) at all ; for its propygidium, which is entirely 
concealed by the apical portion of the elytra, is comjgarativehj 
bright and unsculptured, an extremely few and distant trans- 
verse plaits in the hinder central region being alone traceable. 

^ The twelfth of these more polished examples was imperfect, and 
had lost its abdomen; but it differed in no respect, that I could perceive, 
from the rest. 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of St, Helena, 317 

Fara. 11. Elateridge. 

Genus 20. Heterodekes. 

Latreille, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iii. 155 (1834). 

23. Heteroderes jouncticolUsj n. sp. 

H, elliptico-elongatus, subuitidus, niger pilisque brevibus demissis 
fulvis parce vestitus; capite prothoraceque dense et profuude 
punctatis punctulisque minutissimis intermediis irroratis, hoc 
magno, convexo, in medio coleopteris latiore, angnlis posticis 
valde productis aciitissimis et carinulis binis instructis, in disco 
postieo obsolete canaliculate, basi transversim deelivo sed in 
media parte ipsissima (pone scutellum) elevate; elytris grosse 
arguteque crenato-striatis, in interstitiis punctato-nigulosis ; 
antennis, palpis pedibusque rufo-ferrugineis ; tarsorum art® 3‘^® 
subtiis late bilobo. 

Long. corp. lin. 4|-. 

I am informed by Mr. Janson that the two examples from 
which the above diagnosis has been compiled, and which 
Mr. Melliss captured at St. Helena, are well distinguished by 
the very deep and close punctation of their head and (largely 
developed) prothorax from all the species of Heteroderes with 
which he is acquainted. Amongst other characters, the species 
may be recognized by the much enlarged lobe, or lacinia, with 
which the underside of its third tarsal joint is furnished, by its 
almost black surface, which is sparingly clothed with a short 
decumbent fulvescent pile, and by its rufo-ferruginous limbs. 
It is a somewhat remarkable fact geographically that the only 
Elaterid hitherto observed at St. Helena should be a member 
of the genus which occurs also, in a single representative, at 
the Azores and Cape Verdes ; whilst the equally rare Madeiran 
and Canarian exponents of that large department of the Coleo- 
ptera belong to a totally different group. 


Fam. 12. Cleridae. 

Genus 21. Corynetes. 

Herbst, Kaf. iv. 148 (1791). 

24. Corynetes rufijyes^, 

Anohium rufipes^ Tbunb., Nov. Ins. Spec. i. 10 (1781). 

Corynetes rufipes, WolL, Ool. Atl. 209 (1865). 

, Id., Col, Hesp. 102 (1867). 

The common European C. rufipes^ as at Ascension and in 
the Canarian a,nd Cape -Verde archipelagos, appears (judging 


318 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of Sl Helena, 

from three examples now before me which were captured by 
Mr. Melliss) to have established itself at St. Helena ; but as it 
has equally become naturalized, through the medium of com- 
merce, in most parts of the civilized world, it is of course 
totally unconnected with the real fauna of the island. 


Fam. 13. Ptinidse. 

Genus 22. Gibbium. 

Scopoli, Intr. ad Hist. Nat. 505 (1777). 

25. Gibbium scotias^. 

Ptinus scotias^ Fab., Spec. Ins. i. 74 (1831). 

Gibbium scotiaSj Woll., Col. Atl. 214 (1865). 

A single example of this European Ptinid is in the St.-He- 
lena collection of Mr. Melliss ; but the species, of course, is a 
mere importation, and might perhaps be found more plentifully 
if searched for in the warehouses and town. It appears, in 
like manner, to have become established at Madeira. 

Fam. 14. Anobiadse. 

Genus 23. Anobium. 

Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 62 (1775). 

26. Anobium velatum^, 

Anobium velatumy Woll., Ins. Mad. 276, t. v. f. 3 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 92 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 249 (1864). 

, Id., Col. Atl. 226 (1865). 

A single example of an Anobium which was taken by Mr. 
Melliss in St. Helena appears to me tobetoo close to the Madeiran 
A, velatum to admit of its being separated from that species, 
though perhaps its elytra are not quite so strongly punctate- 
striate. Its extremely elongated suberect pubescence renders 
it more in accordance with the A, velatum than with the Cana- 
rian A, villosum of Brulld, though in point of fact the two 
species are so intimately related that I cannot feel quite sure 
that they are more in reality than modifications of a single 
plastic form. If my conjecture, that in the more northern 
archipelagos these particular species are considerably attached 
to the old vine-trees, is con*ect, it is more than probable that 
the one now before me may have been accidentally imported 
into St. Helena. 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Coleoptera of SL Helena. 319 

27. Anohium pariiceum^ . 

Dermestes panlceuSj Linn., Faun. Suec. 431 (1761). 

Anohium paniceumy WolL, Col. Atl. 227 (1865). 

Id., Col. Heap. 109 (1867). 

I need scarcely add that the almost cosmopolitan A. imni- 
ceum (a few examples of which are amongst Mr. Melliss’s in- 
sects from St. Helena) is a mere accidental importation into 
the island, and has no kind of connexion whatsoever with the 
true fauna, the presence of such species in any local list being 
merely dependent upon the amount of diligence with which 
the warehouses and stores may happen to have been searched. 
The A. paniceum has, in like manner, become established in 
the Azorean, Madeiran, Canarian, and Cape -Verde archipe- 
lagos. 

28. Anobium striatum^, 

Anobiuni striatum. Oliv., Ent. ii. 16. 9 (1790). 

, Woll., Col. Atl. 227 (1865). 

Like the last species, the present common European Ano-‘ 
hium has (judging from a few examples which were captured 
by Mr. Melliss) become established at St. Helena ; but it has, 
of course, no more to do than that equally cosmopolitan insect 
with the original fauna of the island. It has been naturalized 
in like manner in the Azorean, Madeiran, and Canarian 
groups. 

29. Anobium confertum^^ n. sp.? 

A. cylindricum, fusco-nigrum, ubique minutissime et densissime 
subgranulato-punctatum pubeque brevi demissa cinerea vestitum ; 
prothorace simplici, transverse, postice elytrorum latitudine, 
angulis anticis subrectis, posticis paulo magis rotundatis, ad latera 
subrecto subrecurvo ferrugineo ; elytris obsolete longitudinaliter 
substriatis (sed punctis majoribus carentibus) ; an tennis pedibus- 
que inasqualiter piceo-ferrugineis, tarsis clarioribus. 

Long. corp. lin. 1|. 

Having no information concerning the precise places of 
capture of Mr. Melliss’s various Coleoptera, I cannot but look 
with suspicion upon a single example of an Anobium now be- 
before me, as having in all probability become introduced into 
the island and been found by him in some house or cultivated 
spot ; yet, as it is well characterized by its very peculiar sculp- 
ture, and I cannot identify it with any member of the genus 
to \yhich I have had access, I have thought it desirable to 
enunciate the species on the chance that it will be ascertained 
to have been imdescribed. Apart from its cylindric but not 
very elongated outline, and (for an Anobium) rather dark hue, 
it may be known by its transverse prothorax, which has the 


320 Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Goleoptera of St, Helena, 

sides somewhat straight, slightly recurved, and ferruginous, 
by its fine and short (but not very dense) cinereo-sericeous 
pubescence, and by its entire surface being most minutely and 
closely punctulated, the punctures being so crowded together 
as to cause the surface to be dull and to appear at first sight 
to be alutaceous, or even coriaceous. Its elytra are obsoletely 
striated, but without any intermixture of larger punctures. 

Fam. 15. Bostrichidae. 

Genus 24. Ehizopertha. 

Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. iii. 254 (1830). 

30. Rhizopertha hifoveolata^ , 

RhyzopeHha hifoveolata^ 'VVolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 409 (1858). 

Rhizopertha , Id., Col. Atl. 232 (1865). 

, Id., Col. Hesp. 110 (1867). 

I have little doubt that the present Rhizopertha has, like 
the R, pusilla^ become naturalized in the island through the 
medium of commerce ; and it is possible therefore that it may 
be ascertained eventually to have been described by some 
prior title to that which I myself proposed for it in 1858. Be 
this, however, as it may, it seems to be conspecific with the 
insect which was taken by Mr. M. Park “ out of a cask of 
flour ” at Madeira (in the Funchal custom-house), and likewise 
with an example which I captured in a quinta at Catharina, 
in the interior of St. lago, of the Cape Verdes. Unless I am 
much mistaken, there are many examples of it in the collec- 
tion at the British Museum bearing labels which show how 
widely the insect has become disseminated, through human 
agencies, over distant parts of the civilized world. 

3 1 . Rhizopertha pusilla ^ . 

Synodendrm pmUluniy Fab., Ent. Syst. v. (Suppl.) 156 (1798). 

Rhyzopertha pnsilla, Steph., loc. cit, 354 (1830). 

Rhizopet'tha , Woll., Col. Atl. 232 (1865). 

Like the last species, the almost cosmopolitan R, pusilla 
appears (judging equally from examples of it which were 
taken by Mr. Melliss) to have become established in the ware- 
houses and stores of St. Helena, just as it has in the Madeiran 
archipelago and elsewhere. 

Fam. 16. Tomicidae. 

Genus 25. Tomicus. 

Latrcille, Hist. Nat. des Ins. iii. 203 (1802). 


Mr. T. V. Wollaston on the Goleo^tera of St. Helena. 321 
32. Tomicus cemulusy n. sp. 

2\ cylindricus, nitidus, nigro-piceus, pilisque longiusciilis suberectis 
Mvescentibus parce obsitus ; protborace amplo, subalutaceo, pos- 
tice evidenter punctulato, mox ante medium subnodoso-convexo, 
antice dilatato obtuse rotundato necnon mucronibus asperato; 
elytris leviter striato-punctatis punctulisque minoribus in inter- 
stitiis uniseriatim notatis, ad apicem retiisis, parte perpendiculari 
dentibus sublateralibus duobus subscqualibus (sc. superiore et in- 
feriore) ac perpaucis lateralibus minutissimis granuliformibus 
utrinque armata ; antennis pedibusque testaceo-fernigineis. 

Long. corp. lin. li. 

The single specimen from which the above diagnosis has 
been drawn out, and which was captured at St. Helena by 
Mr. Melliss, lias much the general appearance, at first sight, of 
the Eiu'opean T, saxeseni (which occurs likewise in the Azo- 
rean, Madeiran, and Canarian archipelagos) ] but a closer in- 
spection will show not only that it is a little larger and more 
pilose, with its prothorax less alutaceous and more distinctly 
punctulated behind, but tliat its elytra are more retuse (orpeiqien- 
dicularly truncated) at the apex, and that each of them is armed 
with (in addition to smaller and granuliform ones) two robust 
acute spines. This latter character, apart from its less shining 
and more evidently punctulated prothorax and darker hue, 
will equally separate it from the T, perforans^ a species closely 
resembling the saxeseni^ and which has been found in the 
Madeiran and Cape -Verde archipelagos (where, however, in 
all probability it has become naturalized accidentally through 
human agencies). What the exact habit of the St.-Helena 
species may be, I cannot tell ; but, if found in the higher dis- 
tricts of the island, at a distance from the towns, it is of course 
possible (though I should scarcely think likely) that it may be 
truly indigenous. 

Fam. 17. Hylesinidae. 

Genus 26. Hylurgus. 

Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. ii. 274 (1807). 

33. Hylurgus ligmperda^ . 

Bostrichus Ugniperda^ Fab., Ent. Syst. i. ii. 367 (1792). 

Hylurgus ligniperda, WolL, Col. Atl. 250 (1865). 

As in the Azorean, Madeiran, and Canarian groups, the 
European H. ligniperda appears (judging from examples of it 
which were captured by Mr. Melliss) to have become natu- 
ralized at St. Helena ; but as it is an insect which is eminently 
liable to accidental transmission along with- trees of the pine 
family, its presence in even so remote an island may perhaps 
be accounted for. 


[To be continued.]